SARS-CoV-2 – The Cause of COVID-19

Overview

Updated March 26, 2020

In late 2019, an outbreak of respiratory illness was reported in Wuhan, China. The cause of the outbreak has been identified as a strain of coronavirus called SARS-COV-2 and the disease it causes has been named Coronavirus Disease 2019 or COVID-19. To date, the virus has infected thousands of people and the death toll is on the rise. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is closely monitoring the situation and provides comprehensive and timely updates.1

What Are Coronaviruses?

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a family of enveloped virus that was first discovered in the 1960s. Coronaviruses are most commonly found in animals, including camels and bats, and are not typically transmitted between animals and humans. However six strains of coronavirus were previously known to be capable of transmission from animals to humans, the most well-known being SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus), responsible for a large outbreak in 2003, and MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus), responsible for an outbreak in 2012.2

What Are the Symptoms of a Human Coronavirus Infection?

Human coronavirus usually causes mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness, similar to a common cold. Symptoms often include runny nose, headache, cough, sore throat and fever. Most people contract the illness at some point in their lives and it usually only lasts for a short time. Sometimes human coronaviruses can cause lower respiratory tract infections, such as pneumonia or bronchitis. This is more common in infants, the elderly or individuals with weakened immune systems. In some serious cases, such as with COVID-19, the virus can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, pneumonia, kidney failure and death.3

How Are Coronaviruses Spread?

Coronaviruses are typically spread through the air via coughing or sneezing, via contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, and sometimes, but rarely, via fecal contamination.4 SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originally spread from animals to humans, but there is growing evidence of person-to-person transmission. This pattern of transmission was also reported with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

Why Are Human Coronaviruses and Particularly SARS-CoV-2 a Concern?

Most people get infected with a human coronavirus at some point in their lives and experience cold-like symptoms for a few days before recovering. However, novel coronaviruses — such as MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 cause severe symptoms including fever, cough and shortness of breath that can lead to pneumonia and even death. These coronaviruses can quickly spread from person to person and can lead to widespread outbreaks when infected individuals travel to different countries. As with most emerging viruses, the risk depends on a number of factors including ease of transmission, severity of symptoms and prevention and treatment options available. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, there is neither a vaccine nor specific treatment.

Infection Control Measures

The CDC provides useful guidance and resources relating to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, including infection control measures. These should all be implemented when patients are suspected of being infected with a coronavirus.5

  • Hand hygiene: Wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Use alcohol-based hand sanitizer when soap and water are not available. Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette: Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • Avoid contact with infected individuals, as possible.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects with an EPA-registered disinfectant.
  • The CDC recommends that individuals confirmed or suspected to have COVID-19 should wear a mask, and healthcare workers should use eye protection. Both contact and airborne precautions should be implemented in addition to standard precautions.

CloroxPro Products Eligible to Be Used Against SARS-CoV-2 Based on the EPA’s Emerging Viral Pathogen Policy

The products listed below have demonstrated effectiveness against viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 on hard, nonporous surfaces. Therefore, these products can be used against SARS-CoV-2 when used in accordance with the directions for use against the virus listed for each product in the table on hard, nonporous surfaces. For more information, refer to the CDC website at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/.

Clorox Healthcare

Product Name UPC EPA Reg. No. Follow directions for use against stated virus
(contact time)
Clorox Healthcare® Bleach Germicidal Cleaner Spray 68967
68970
68832
68973
68978
56392-7 Rhinovirus (1 min)
Clorox Healthcare® Bleach Germicidal Wipes 30577
35309
30358
30359
31469
67619-12 Rhinovirus (1 min)
Clorox Healthcare® Fuzion® Disinfectant Cleaner 31478 67619-30 Rhinovirus Type 37 (1 min)
Clorox Healthcare® Hydrogen Peroxide Cleaner Disinfectant 30828
30829
31444
67619-24 Rhinovirus Type 37 (1 min)
Clorox Healthcare® Hydrogen Peroxide Cleaner Disinfectant Wipes 30824
30825
30826
30827
67619-25 Rhinovirus (1 min)
Dispatch® Hospital Cleaner Disinfectant Towels with Bleach 69101
69260
69150
56392-8 Rhinovirus (1 min)
Clorox Healthcare® VersaSure® Cleaner Disinfectant Wipes 31757
31758
31759
31760
31761
67619-37 Rotavirus (2 min)
Clorox Healthcare® Citrace® Hospital Disinfectant & Deodorizer 49100 67619-29 Rhinovirus (5 min)
Clorox Healthcare® Broad Spectrum Quaternary Disinfectant Cleaner 30649 67619-20 Rhinovirus (3 min)
Clorox Healthcare® Disinfecting Wipes 31584 67619-31 Rotavirus (4 min)

CloroxPro

Product Name UPC EPA Reg. No. Follow directions for use against stated virus
(contact time)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Clorox®Disinfecting Wipes 15948
15949
31428
31547
67619-31 Rotavirus (4 min)
CloroxPro™ Clorox® Germicidal Bleach
(see dilution instructions below)
31009
30966
67619-32 Rhinovirus (5 min)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Clorox® Clean-Up® Disinfectant Cleaner with Bleach1 (Spray) 35417 67619-17 Rhinovirus (30 sec)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Clorox® Clean-Up® Disinfectant Cleaner with Bleach1 (Diluted) 35420 67619-17 Rhinovirus (5 min)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Clorox® Disinfecting Spray 38504 67619-21 Rhinovirus (30 sec)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Clorox® Disinfecting Spray 38504 67619-21 Rhinovirus (30 sec)
CloroxPro™ Clorox® 4-in-One Disinfectant & Sanitizer 31043 67619-29 Rhinovirus (5 min)
Clorox® Total 360® Disinfecting Cleaner 31650 67619-38 Adenovirus Type 2 (2 min)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Toilet Bowl Cleaner with Bleach1 00031 67619-16 Rhinovirus (10 min)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Clorox® Disinfecting Bio Stain & Odor Remover 31903
31910
31911
67619-33 Rhinovirus (5 min)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Disinfecting Bathroom Cleaner 16930 5813-40-67619 Rhinovirus (10 min)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Tilex® Soap Scum Remover 35600
35604
5813-40-67619 Rhinovirus (10 min)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Hydrogen Peroxide Cleaner Disinfectant 30832 67619-24 Rhinovirus (1 min)
Clorox Commercial Solutions® Hydrogen Peroxide Cleaner Disinfectant Wipes 30830
30831
30833
67619-25 Rhinovirus (1 min)

CloroxPro™ Clorox® Germicidal Bleach Dilution Instructions
Below are the CloroxPro™ Clorox® Germicidal Bleach dilution instructions and the contact time (the time the surface needs to stay wet with disinfectant) that can be used against SARS-CoV-2.

Product Dilution Ratio Instructions for hard, nonporous surface disinfection Contact time used to kill SARS-CoV-2
CloroxPro™ Clorox® Germicidal Bleach Bleach:
½ cup
Water:
1 gallon
Prewash surface.
Mop or wipe with bleach solution.
Allow solution to contact surface for at least 5 minutes.
Rinse well and air dry.
5 minutes*

* Contact time for Rhinovirus

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